Punctuation — Quotation Marks

  1. Use quotation marks to enclose direct quotations.MacArthur vowed, “I Shall return,” as he left the islands.

    MacArthur vowed, (quote)”I shall return,“(end quote) as he left the islands.

    1. With an interrupted quotation, use quotation marks only around the quoted words.”I heard,” said Amy, “that you passed the course.”

      (quote)”I heard,“(end quote) said Amy, (quote)”that you passed the course.“(end quote)

    2. With an uninterrupted quotation of several sentences, use quotation marks before the first sentence and after the last.Jenkins said, “Something’s wrong.  I know it.  He should have called by now.”

      Jenkins said, (quote)”Something’s wrong.  I know it.  He should have called in by now.“(end quote)

    3. With long uninterrupted quotations of several paragraphs, use either of the following forms.
      1. Put quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph but at the end of only the last paragraph.
      2. Use no quotation marks at all; instead, indent the entire quotation and type it single spaced.
    4. With a short quotation that is not a complete sentence, use no commas.Barrie described life as “a long lesson in humility.”

      Barrie described life as (quote)”a long lesson in humility.“(end quote)

    5. Use the ellipsis (three periods “…”) to indicate the omission of unimportant or irrelevant words from a quotation.”What a heavy burden is a name that has become…famous.”–Voltaire

      (quote)”What a heavy burden is a name that has become…(ellipsis) famous.“(end quote)–Voltaire

    6. Use brackets to indicate explanatory words added to the quotation.”From a distance it [fear] is something; nearby it is nothing.”–La Fontaine

      (quote)”From a distance it (bracket)[fear](end bracket) is something; nearby it is nothing.“(end quote)–La Fontaine

    7. When quoting dialogue, start a new paragraph with each change of speaker.
      1. “He’s dead,” Holmes announced.(quote)”He’s dead,“(end quote) Holmes announced. (end paragraph)
      2. “Are you sure?” the young lady asked.(quote)”Are you sure?“(end quote) the young lady asked.
  2. Use quotation marks around the titles of short written works: poems, articles, essays, short stories, chapters, and songs.
    1. The first chapter in The Guns of August is entitled “A Funeral.”The first chapter in The Guns of August is entitled (quote)”A Funeral.“(end quote)
    2. I still get misty-eyed when I hear “Danny Boy.”I still get misty-eyed when I hear (quote)”Danny Boy.“(end quote)
  3. Use quotation marks around definition of words.The original meaning of lady was “Kneader of bread.”

    The original meaning of lady was (quote)”kneader of bread.“(end quote)

  4. Use quotation marks to indicate the special use of a word.Organized crime operates by having its ill-gotten gains “laundered” so they appear legitimate.

    Organized crime operates by having its ill-gotten gains (quote)”laundered“(end quote) so they appear legitimate.

  5. Use a set of single quotation marks to indicate a quotation within a quotation.She asked, “Who said, ‘Let them eat cake.’?”

    She asked, (quote)”Who said, (single quote)’Let them eat cake.'(end single quote)?“(end quote)

  6. Place periods and commas inside quotation marks.Dr. Watson said, “It’s the speckled band.”

    Dr. Watson said, (quote)”It’s the speckled band.“(end quote)

  7. Place colons and semicolons outside the quotation marks.Coe barked, “I have nothing to say”; then he left.

    Coe barked, (quote)”I have nothing to say“(end quote); then he left.

  8. Place question marks, exclamation marks, and dashes inside the quotation marks when the punctuation belongs to the quote and outside the quotation marks when they do not.Shauna said, “Who is my opponent?”  Did Shauna say, “I fear no opponent”?

    Shauna said, (quote)”Who is my opponent?“(end quote) Did Shauna say,(quote)”I fear no opponent“(end quote)?(question mark)

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